Social Vulnerability Indices of Seasonal Rural-to-Rural Migrant: A Comparative Study of Migrant-Sending and Non-Migrant Households in Northwest Ethiopia

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Tegegne Derbe
Degesew Melak
Beyene Derso

Abstract

Subsistence agriculture is the base of smallholder farmers'  livelihood in Ethiopia, though it is challenged by different risks. Seasonal migration is therefore a common phenomenon for rural poor people in western Ethiopia to reduce risks. As a result, the increased migration of people is the manifestation of the pervasive risk of the day in the country. Hence, this study investigated the social vulnerability of season- al migrant-sending households comparing with non-migrant households. Two-stage sampling technique was adopted to select 188 households for primary data collec- tion using household interview schedule, key informant interview, and focused group discussion. Also, relevant published and unpublished documents were reviewed to collect secondary information's. Descriptive statistics like mean, percentage, and in- ferential statistics like Chi-square were employed for data analysis. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to develop the social vulnerability index (SVI). The result of data analysis showed that migrant-sending households are less vul- nerable than non-migrant households (X2=9.0823, p<0S). The income from migrant household members increased migrant sending households' livelihood diversification, and reduced the food shortage in the households compared to non-migrant house- holds. This paper concludes that seasonal rural-to-rural migration in the Northwest Ethiopia is found to be livelihood risk minimization and means of livelihood. Thus, pay attention by stakeholders is demanded to enhance the positive impact of sea- sonal  rural-to-rural  migration  to  the  livelihood  of  migrant  sending  households.

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